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  • August Offer 1940

 

      • By 1939, after the resignation of members from legislative assembly, INC demanded the status of independence of India or at least Provincial National Government
      • Viceroy Lord Linlithgow turned down the request by August 8, 1940; called ‘August Statement’
      • Instead suggested the following (aimed at Indian Support for WW2)
      • Expansion of Viceroy’s executive council with more number of Indian members
      • Representative constitution-making body to be set up after war
      • War advisory council to be set up consisting of representatives of British India and the Indian states
      • Viceroy promised league and other minorities that British govt would never agree to a constitution or govt in India w/o their support
      • INC rejected the August offer
      • Muslim league proclaimed themselves satisfied only with a partition

 

  • Cripps Mission 1942

 

      • Under the pressure of US president Roosevelt and Chinese president Chiang Kai Shek, Churchill decided to send a mission to India to seek active cooperation against Japan to whom Rangoon had fallen to
      • Stafford Cripps submitted the following suggestions after discussing with leaders of various political parties
      • British govt is to provide dominion status to India
      • Fresh elections to all provincial legislature, after which a constitution-making body would be set up, after the war. Members of this body will be elected by provincial assemblies and nominated by princely states
      • Govt of Britain would accept the constitution with a provision that if any Indian province disagrees to accept the constitution, will reside outside Indian union and can negotiate directly or separately with Britain
      • During the war, an executive council composed of leaders of principal sections of Indian people. British Govt will have complete control over defence and military operations.
      • INC rejected it seeking action for promise; League rejected it demanding partition

 

  • Wavell Plan and Simla Conference 1945

 

      • To resolve political deadlock after 1939, Viceroy went to England for consultation and to create conducive atmosphere for dialogue ordered in March 1945
      • 4th June 1945, all the working committee members of INC were released
      • Proposed a new executive council of 14 members with all Indians except Viceroy & CIC (Muslims even though only 25% of the population, was over-represented with 6 members
      • All portfolios except defence were to be under the control of Indian members

 

  • Cabinet Mission 1946

 

      • Announced on 19th Feb 1946
      • Members
        • Sir Pethick-Lawrence – SOS for India
        • Sir Stafford Cripps – President of the board of trade
        • A V Alexander – 1st Lord of Admiralty

 

  • Objectives

 

      • Find out means and ways for peaceful transfer of power
      • Suggest measures for the formation of constitution-making machinery
      • To setup interim Govt
      • Formation of constitution-making body and developments leading to Indian Independence act 1947
      • 14 membered Interim govt formed – 1946
    • Features of Schemes
      • Total strength of constituent assembly 389
      • British India 296
      • The Princely States 93
      • Seats to be allowed w.r.t population
      • From three principal communities
        • Muslims
        • Sikhs
        • Others
      • Representatives of community to be selected by members of the respective community from provincial assembly through proportional representation
      • Members of princely states are to be nominated by respective heads
      • Members are to be indirectly elected by provincial assemblies
      • Elections were held in July-August 1946
      • INC 208; ML 73; Others 15
      • 93 princely states remained vacant
      • the first meeting on December 9, 1946; boycotted by ML demanding Pakistan and there were only 211 member
      • Satchithanand Sinha was elected pro term chairman (French practice to select senior most member)
      • objective resolution by Nehru on 13 December 1946, approved by the assembly on 22nd January 1947; later modified as the preamble of Indian Constitution
      • Interim government was formed with the members of viceroys executive council, on September 2, 1946
      • February 20, 1947, Clement Atlee declared that British rule in India will end by June 30, 1948
      • Balkan/ June 3/ Mount Batten plan accepted partition and right to secede from British Commonweal

 

  • Indian Independence Act 1947

 

    • Enacted by the acceptance of Mount Batten plan by INC and ML
    • British rule to be over by 15 August 1947
    • Partition into two dominions and right to secede from British Commonwealth
    • Viceroy’s office was abolished and replaced by Governor General for each dominion, to be appointed by British monarch, GOB has no responsibility w.r.t GOI and GOP
    • Authorised constituent Assemblies of both dominions to enact laws with respect to their dominion till the new Constitution is framed; Acts of British Parliament is not applicable after 15 August 1947
    • Office of SOS abolished
    • British paramountcy over princely states and treaties with tribal areas were done away with Princely states
    • Princely states were free to join any of the dominions
    • Governor General of India and provincial governors were made nominal heads as they had to act as per the council of ministers Appointments to civil services and reservation of p
    • Appointments to civil services and reservation of posts by SOS was stopped
    • British monarch was made to remove emperor of India from Royal styles and titles