vienna convention
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Environmental Protection 
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organisation controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures of over consumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental issues.
For Environmental Protection there are some acts by Government of India, some environmental organisations like Animal Welfare Board , International Environmental Conventions and some Institutions and special measures.
1. International Environmental Conventions
2. Acts by Government of India
3. Institutions and special measures
4. Animal Welfare Board
To address environmental issues that India and other countries face, it is imperative and important to initiate action at all levels – global, regional, national, local, and community. It is not enough to have international agreements and instruments on environmental issues; but implementation and enforcement of these policies and agreements to a large extent determine their impact and effectiveness. To bring about change at all levels it is important to understand the global scenario and India’s position in the global arena.
History and Development of International Environmental Law Concern for the environment first began to appear on the international agenda during the early twentieth century with the conclusion of a number of international conventions. Earlier attempts to develop international environmental law focused on the conservation of wildlife, i. e. fisheries, birds, and seals and to a limited extent, the protection of rivers and seas. Following were the initial treaties aimed at protecting only a few species which were considered valuable resources to humans, or to protect human health:
• Convention for the Protection of Useful Birds to Agriculture, 1902
• Treaty for the Preservation of Fur Seals, Washington, 1911
• Convention Concerning the Use of White Lead in Painting, Geneva, 1921
• Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 1931 During this first phase, it was only fisheries and wildlife that attracted the attention of international legislators. The 1909 Water Boundaries Treaty between the United States and Canada was the first to commit its parties to preventing pollution, and under the auspices of its International Joint Commission a draft treaty on Pollution Prevention was drawn up in 1920, but not adopted. Also, during this period, two environmental disputes were submitted to international arbitration. In the Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration, the dispute between the United States and Great Britain concerned the latter’s alleged over-exploitation of fur seals in areas beyond national jurisdiction. This award set forth regulations for the ‘proper protection and preservation’ of fur seals outside jurisdictional limits. The second arbitral award during this period arose out of a dispute between the United States and Canada over the emission of sulphur fumes from a trail smelter situated in Canada which caused damage in the State of Washington. The principle applied in this case was that ‘no state has the right to use or permit the use of its territory in such a manner as to cause injury by fumes in or to the territory of another or the properties or persons therein, when the case is of serious consequence and the injury is established by clear and convincing evidence.’ The second phase in the development of international environmental law began with the creation of the United Nations and its specialized agencies in 1945. This period was characterized by two features: international organizations at the regional and global level began to address environmental issues, and the range of environmental concerns addressed by international regulatory activity broadened to include a focus on the causes of pollution resulting from certain ultra-hazardous activities. Another feature was the limited recognition of the relationship between economic development and environmental protection. By the year 1972, a body of international environmental rules at the regional and global levels, and international organizations addressing international environmental issues emerged. During this period, there was a lack of co-ordination to develop a coherent international environmental strategy. Moreover, no international organization had overall responsibility for coordinating international environmental policy and law. It was during this time that the United Nations took charge and convened the first global conference on environment at Stockholm known as the United Nations Conference on Human Environment. This conference was the outcome of an Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere convened by UNESCO in 1968. The Convention considered the human impact on the biosphere, including the effects of air and water pollution, overgrazing, deforestation and the drainage of wetlands, and adopted 20 recommendations reflecting themes adopted at the 1972 Stockholm Conference. The Stockholm Conference set the background for international activities on environmental protection at the regional and global levels. The Stockholm Conference elaborated an Action Plan consisting of 106 recommendations and a Declaration of 26 Principles on the Human Environment. It also proposed a new UN agency, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). UNEP has been responsible for the establishment and implementation of regional as well as global treaties addressing ozone depletion, trade in endangered species, etc. Under the auspices of UNEP, the following four global conventions were elaborated during this time:
• Convention on the Control of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Washington, 1973
• Convention on Migratory Species, Bonn, 1979
• Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Vienna, 1985, and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal, 1987
• Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Basel, 1989
In 1981, a Programme for the Development and Periodic Review of Environmental Law (The Montevideo Programme) was drafted in Montevideo by a group of legal experts convened by UNEP. It was adopted by the Governing Council in 1982. The Montevideo Programme activities can be grouped in three categories:
• The conclusion of international agreements
• The development of international principles, guidelines, and standards
• Provision of technical assistance for the further development of national legislation and institutions, including the implementation of international agreements through national legislation
In 1987, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the ‘Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and beyond’ as a framework to guide national action and international co-operation in policies and programme aimed at achieving environmentally sound development. During this period, UNEP also developed various guidelines or ‘soft law’ instruments such as:
• Montreal Guidelines for the Protection of the Marine Environment against Pollution from Land-based Activities, 1985
• Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, 1987
• London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade, 1989
Another milestone in the history of international environmental law is the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, from 3-14 June 1992. The purpose of the conference was to elaborate strategies and measures to halt and reverse the effects of environmental degradation in the context of strengthened national and international efforts to promote sustainable and environmentally sound development. UNCED was concerned with the balance between environmental protection and economic development. The objective of UNCED was to formulate appropriate mechanisms to address the practical crisis facing humanity in protecting the environment while still guaranteeing a minimum level of development. As part of the work leading to UNCED, a review of the Montevideo Programme was concluded in 1991 and the Programme for the Development and Periodic Review of Environmental Law for the 1990s, i.e. Montevideo II was adopted. Montevideo II outlines 18 specific areas of concentration for UNEP in the field of environmental law, and 7 additional subjects for possible consideration during this decade. UNCED adopted three non-binding instruments: the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; a Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation, and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forest; and Agenda 21. Two important treaties on Biological Diversity and Climate Change were also adopted at this conference. In order to monitor the implementation of decisions made at UNCED, particularly Agenda 21, the UN General Assembly resolved in December 1992 to establish a Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). CSD monitors the progress made in implementation of Agenda 21 and provides recommendations to the UN General Assembly for its implementation.
1. Vienna Convention ( MONTREAL PROTOCOL )
2. Stockholm Convention
3. Rotterdam Convention
4. Basel Convention
5. Convention on Biological Diversity 5.1 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety:
5.2 Nagoya Protocol :  5.2.1 Aichi Target
6. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
7. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
7.1 KYOTO PROTOCOL 7.1.1 KYOTO MECHANISM 7.1.2 Doha Outcome 7.1.3 Warsaw Outcome
8. Bonn Convention:
9. Barcelona Convention
10. Ramsar Convention
12. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
13. Minamata Convention
14. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol) 4
15. Benzene Convention
16. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)
17. The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network ( TRAFFIC)